quarta-feira, 15 de fevereiro de 2017

MUSTARD: mustum+ardens

It has been a part of the most ancient Mediterranean civilisations. The Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used it to spice up meat and fish dishes. They crushed the grains and mixed it into their food. 

It was the Romans who imported the custom of using table mustard to Gaul. Then later on, King Charlemagne recommended the cultivation of this spice throughout the realm as well as in the botanical gardens surrounding the monasteries in Parisian suburbs. Mustard cultivation gradually spread through Germany then to England. In Northern Europe, it was believed that scattering a few mustard seeds around your house would ward away evil spirits… 

Bateau

Mustard appeared in Spain with the arrival of the Roman legions, then in India with Vasco de Gama.

The origin of the word "mustard" comes from two Latin words (mustum ardens) which means "burning must" because in ancient times mustard was prepared with must (unfermented grape juice). This word then gave rise to the word "mustard" in English. 

Others claim that it came from the era of Duc Philippe le Téméraire, Duke of Burgundy, who in 1382 granted the town of Dijon with various privileges, in particular his personal coat of arms bearing his signet: "Moult me tarde" (I am impatient")… but this origin seems unlikely. This explanation proves one thing at least, that Dijon was already famous for its mustard by the 14th century.

In 1390, the manufacture of mustard became regulated and anybody producing a bad mustard was subject to heavy fines. 

In cities, street traders, known as "criers" sold their mustard door-to-door under the name of "saulces et épices d'enfer " (sauces and spices of hell).

Rabelais

Apothecaries at the time were said to be making a fortune preparing a mixture made up of mustard seeds, ginger and mint for husbands to give to their wives to stimulate their libido. Two centuries later, the corporation of vinegar and mustard-makers of the town of Dijon was created. Their imaginative recipes are at the origins of the names for the various types of mustard still in use today. 

The golden age of spices was the renaissance period, mustard was present at every banquet, even Rabelais was a keen amateur!

Over the centuries mustard became more and more synonymous with refinement and pleasure and it was at this time that fine and aromatic mustards began to appear. At the beginning of the 19th century, manufacturers entered into a race to rival each other's imaginations, creating many new recipes. They were greatly encouraged by the great gourmets such as Grimod de la Reynière, Carème, Brillat-Savarin or even Monselet. 

Manufacturing techniques evolved with the industrial revolution. Traditional techniques were gradually displaced by mechanisation: machines were introduced to grind, sieve and crush the seeds. 

Production developed very quickly from manufacturing workshop to factory. In the 20th century, regulations became increasingly strict, and the decree of 1937 set out conditions for manufacturing and naming mustards. A regulation completed and signed in July 2000 specifies these names.

Source:

http://www.moutarde-de-meaux.com/en/histo-origine-moutarde.php

segunda-feira, 13 de fevereiro de 2017

IMAGEM NEURAL: APRENDIZADO

Neurociência coloca em xeque a aula tradicional

http://porvir.org/neurociencia-coloca-em-xeque-aula-tradicional/

Para o professor Alexandre Rezende, doutor em morfofisiologia do sistema nervoso, conhecer o funcionamento do cérebro ajuda a criar melhores estratégias na sala de aula 

por Marina Lopes  9 de fevereiro de 2017

Qual é a diferença entre assistir à televisão e acompanhar uma aula expositiva? Há quem diga que a segunda opção exige maior concentração, mas a verdade é que elas são praticamente iguais para o cérebro e ambas registram baixa atividade neural. Descobertas como essa trazem apenas mais indícios de que, pela neurociência, a aula tradicional já está com os seus dias contados.

Para o professor Alexandre Rezende, doutor em morfofisiologia do sistema nervoso pela Unicamp (Universidade Estadual de Campinas), a neurociência aplicada à educação ajuda a identificar problemas que afetam a atenção ou o aprendizado de maneira geral. Se um educador sabe que um ambiente escuro aumenta os níveis de melatonina do organismo –hormônio do sono responsável por regular o relógio biológico, ele jamais vai apagar toda a luz da sala para dar uma longa aula com apresentação de slides. “A neurociência pode ser bastante eficiente no sentido de mudar as estratégias educacionais”, defende.

Desde 2010, quando começou a se aproximar da neuroeducação, Rezende conta que enxergou neste campo a possibilidade de criar estratégias que atingem os alunos com mais eficiência. “É justamente fazer o professor olhar para o aluno e não imaginar um ser inerte e passivo para receber informações”, pontua. Quando um professor entende isso, ele começa a rever uma série de ações recorrentes no ambiente escolar. “Alguns trabalhos mostram claramente a falta de atenção dos alunos durante uma aula padrão”, comenta.

A neurociência mostra que, ao se emocionar, um aluno ou qualquer outra pessoa tem uma capacidade maior de gravar as informações

Apesar de não existir uma receita pronta para transformar as práticas na sala de aula, o professor e doutor em morfofisiologia do sistema nervoso diz que estratégias simples já podem fazer diferença. “A neurociência mostra que, ao se emocionar, um aluno ou qualquer outra pessoa tem uma capacidade maior de gravar as informações. Dentro da sala de aula, é potente criar estratégias que geram emoção”, avalia.

As práticas motivacionais também podem trazer bons resultados para a aprendizagem, principalmente em um momento de grandes discussões sobre como atrair a atenção da nova geração. “Os alunos já não tem muita motivação. Nós, professores, temos que assumir essa responsabilidade e trabalhar para fazer algo diferente em sala de aula”, reflete Rezende.

E o diferente, mencionado por ele, pode estar associado a tendências educacionais diversas, que vão desde o uso de tecnologia até as atividades práticas de educação mão na massa. “As estratégias são diversas e cada professor pode criar algo”, encoraja, ao mesmo tempo em que demonstra a importância de fazer o aluno perceber porque determinada atividade é importante.

Mas como começar a colocar as mudanças em prática? O doutor em morfofisiologia do sistema nervoso afirma que não adianta apenas consumir informações e partir em busca de receitas. “É preciso ter curiosidade e vontade de criar uma nova estratégia”, aponta. Apesar desse campo de conhecimento não estar presente em grande parte dos cursos de formação inicial de professores, ele menciona que os professores podem buscar cursos de especialização ou até mesmo referências sobre o assunto.

- Quer aprender mais? Veja uma lista de livros sugeridos por ele:

1. LENT, R. Cem bilhões de neurônios: conceitos fundamentais de neurociência. 1ª Ed. Atheneu. São Paulo, SP, 2001.
2. CONSENZA, R.; GUERRA, B.G. Neurociência e Educação: como o cérebro aprende. 1ª ed. Artmed. Porto Alegre, 2011.
3. PIAZZI, P. Ensinando Inteligência: manual de instruções do cérebro de seu aluno. Coleção Neuropedagogia, Volume 3, 1ª ed. Aleph LTDA. São Paulo, 2009.
4. METRING, R. Neuropsicologia e Aprendizagem: fundamentos necessários para planejamento do ensino. 1ª ed. Wak Editora. Rio de Janeiro, 2011.
5. PIAZZI, P. Aprendendo Inteligência: manual de instruções do cérebro para alunos em geral. Coleção Neuropedagogia, Volume 1, 1ª ed. Aleph LTDA. São Paulo, 2009.
6. PIAZZI, P. Estimulando Inteligência: manual de instruções do cérebro de seu filho. Coleção Neuropedagogia, Volume 2, 1ª ed. Aleph LTDA. São Paulo, 2009.
7. RELVAS, M.P. Neurociência e Transtornos de Aprendizagem: As múltiplas eficiências para uma educação inclusiva. 5ª ed. Wak Editora. Rio de Janeiro, 2011.
8. SILVA, A. B. B. Mentes Inquietas: TDAH: desatenção, hiperatividade e impulsividade. Ed. Revista e Ampliada. Fontanar. Rio de Janeiro, 2011.
9. SILVA, A. B. B. Mentes e Manias: TOC: Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo. Ed. Revista e Ampliada. Fontanar. Rio de Janeiro, 2011.

Para explorar mais sobre esse assunto e debater como a neurociência pode ajudar na educação, o professor Alexandre Rezende estará presente no 1º Congresso Brasileiro de Tendências e Inovação na Educação, que acontece no dia 8 de abril, em Campinas. O evento é organizado pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Formação de Educadores (IBFE) e conta com o apoio do Porvir.

domingo, 12 de fevereiro de 2017

JULIUS EVOLA A BESTA APOCALÍPTICA

S. BANNON CITED ITALIAN THINKER WHO INPIRED FASCISTS

ROME — Those trying to divine the roots of Stephen K. Bannon’s dark and at times apocalyptic worldview have repeatedly combed over a speech that Mr. Bannon, President Trump’s ideological guru, made in 2014 to a Vatican conference, where he expounded on Islam, populism and capitalism. But for all the examination of those remarks, a passing reference by Mr. Bannon to an esoteric Italian philosopher has gone little noticed, except perhaps by scholars and followers of the deeply taboo, Nazi-affiliated thinker, Julius Evola.
“The fact that Bannon even knows Evola is significant,” said Mark Sedgwick, a leading scholar of Traditionalists at Aarhus University in Denmark.
Evola, who died in 1974, wrote on everything from Eastern religions to the metaphysics of sex to alchemy. But he is best known as a leading proponent of Traditionalism, a worldview popular in far-right and alternative religious circles that believes progress and equality are poisonous illusions.
Evola became a darling of Italian Fascists, and Italy’s post-Fascist terrorists of the 1960s and 1970s looked to him as a spiritual and intellectual godfather.
They called themselves Children of the Sun after Evola’s vision of a bourgeoisie-smashing new order that he called the Solar Civilization. Today, the Greek neo-Nazi party Golden Dawn includes his works on its suggested reading list, and the leader of Jobbik, the Hungarian nationalist party, admires Evola and wrote an introduction to his works.
More important for the current American administration, Evola also caught on in the United States with leaders of the alt-right movement, which Mr. Bannon nurtured as the head of Breitbart News and then helped harness for Mr. Trump.
“Julius Evola is one of the most fascinating men of the 20th century,” said Richard Spencer, the white nationalist leader who is a top figure in the alt-right movement, which has attracted white supremacists, racists and anti-immigrant elements.
In the days after the election, Mr. Spencer led a Washington alt-right conference in chants of “Hail Trump!” But he also invoked Evola’s idea of a prehistoric and pre-Christian spirituality — referring to the awakening of whites, whom he called the Children of the Sun.
Mr. Spencer said “it means a tremendous amount” that Mr. Bannon was aware of Evola and other Traditionalist thinkers.
“Even if he hasn’t fully imbibed them and been changed by them, he is at least open to them,” he said. “He at least recognizes that they are there. That is a stark difference to the American conservative movement that either was ignorant of them or attempted to suppress them.”
Mr. Bannon, who did not return a request for comment for this article, is an avid and wide-ranging reader. He has spoken enthusiastically about everything from Sun Tzu’s “The Art of War” to “The Fourth Turning” by William Strauss and Neil Howe, which sees history in cycles of cataclysmic and order-obliterating change. His awareness of and reference to Evola in itself only reflects that reading. But some on the alt-right consider Mr. Bannon a door through which Evola’s ideas of a hierarchical society run by a spiritually superior caste can enter in a period of crisis.
“Evolists view his ship as coming in,” said Prof. Richard Drake at the University of Montana, who wrote about Evola in his book “The Revolutionary Mystique and Terrorism in Contemporary Italy.”
For some of them, it has been a long time coming. 
“It’s the first time that an adviser to the American president knows Evola, or maybe has a Traditionalist formation,” said Gianfranco De Turris, an Evola biographer and apologist based in Rome who runs the Evola Foundation out of his apartment.
“If Bannon has these ideas, we have to see how he influences the politics of Trump,” he said. 
A March article titled “An Establishment Conservative’s Guide to the Alt-Right” in Breitbart, the website then run by Mr. Bannon, included Evola as one of the thinkers in whose writings the “origins of the alternative right” could be found.
The article was co-written by Milo Yiannopoulos, the right-wing provocateur who is wildly popular with conservatives on college campuses. Mr. Trump recently defended Mr. Yiannopoulos as a symbol of free speech after demonstrators violently protested his planned speech at the University of California, Berkeley.
The article celebrated the youthful internet trolls who give the alt-right movement its energy and who, motivated by a common and questionable sense of humor, use anti-Semitic and racially charged memes “in typically juvenile but undeniably hysterical fashion.”
“It’s hard to imagine them reading Evola,” the article continued. “They may be inclined to sympathize to those causes, but mainly because it annoys the right people.”
Evola, who has more than annoyed people for nearly a century, seems to be having a moment.
“When I started working on Evola, you had to plow through Italian,” said Mr. Sedgwick, who keeps track of Traditionalist movements and thought on his blog, Traditionalists. “Now he’s available in English, German, Russian, Serbian, Greek, Hungarian. First I saw Evola boom, and then I realized the number of people interested in that sort of idea was booming.”
Born in 1898, Evola liked to call himself a baron and in later life sported a monocle in his left eye.
A brilliant student and talented artist, he came home after fighting in World War I and became a leading exponent in Italy of the Dada movement, which, like Evola, rejected the church and bourgeois institutions.
Evola’s early artistic endeavors gave way to his love of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, and he developed a worldview with an overriding animosity toward the decadence of modernity. Influenced by mystical works and the occult, Evola began developing an idea of the individual’s ability to transcend his reality and “be unconditionally whatever one wants.”
Under the influence of René Guénon, a French metaphysicist and convert to Islam, Evola in 1934 published his most influential work, “The Revolt Against the Modern World,” which cast materialism as an eroding influence on ancient values.
It viewed humanism, the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation and the French Revolution all as historical disasters that took man further away from a transcendental perennial truth.
Changing the system, Evola argued, was “not a question of contesting and polemicizing, but of blowing everything up.”
Evola’s ideal order, Professor Drake wrote, was based on “hierarchy, caste, monarchy, race, myth, religion and ritual.”
That made a fan out of Benito Mussolini.
The dictator already admired Evola’s early writings on race, which influenced the 1938 Racial Laws restricting the rights of Jews in Italy.
Mussolini so liked Evola’s 1941 book, “Synthesis on the Doctrine of Race,” which advocated a form of spiritual, and not merely biological, racism, that he invited Evola to meet him in September of that year.
Evola eventually broke with Mussolini and the Italian Fascists because he considered them overly tame and corrupted by compromise. Instead he preferred the Nazi SS officers, seeing in them something closer to a mythic ideal. They also shared his anti-Semitism. 
Mr. Bannon suggested in his Vatican remarks that the Fascist movement had come out of Evola’s ideas.
As Mr. Bannon expounded on the intellectual motivations of the Russian president, Vladimir V. Putin, he mentioned “Julius Evola and different writers of the early 20th century who are really the supporters of what’s called the Traditionalist movement, which really eventually metastasized into Italian Fascism.
The reality, historians say, is that Evola sought to “infiltrate and influence” the Fascists, as Mr. Sedgwick put it, as a powerful vehicle to spread his ideas.
In his Vatican talk, Mr. Bannon suggested that although Mr. Putin represented a “kleptocracy,” the Russian president understood the existential danger posed by “a potential new caliphate” and the importance of using nationalism to stand up for traditional institutions.
“We, the Judeo-Christian West,” Mr. Bannon added, “really have to look at what he’s talking about as far as Traditionalism goes — particularly the sense of where it supports the underpinnings of nationalism.”
As Mr. Bannon suggested in his speech, Mr. Putin’s most influential thinker is Aleksandr Dugin, the ultranationalist Russian Traditionalist and anti-liberal writer sometimes called “Putin’s Rasputin.”
An intellectual descendant of Evola, Mr. Dugin has called for a “genuine, true, radically revolutionary, and consistent fascist fascism” and advocated a geography-based theory of “Eurasianism” — which has provided a philosophical framework for Mr. Putin’s expansionism and meddling in Western European politics.
Mr. Dugin sees European Traditionalists as needing Russia, and Mr. Putin, to defend them from the onslaught of Western liberal democracy, individual liberty, and materialism — all Evolian bêtes noires.
This appeal of traditional values on populist voters and against out-of-touch elites, the “Pan-European Union” and “centralized government in the United States,” as Mr. Bannon put it, was not lost on Mr. Trump’s ideological guru.
“A lot of people that are Traditionalists,” he said in his Vatican remarks, “are attracted to that.”


1)


3)
As the founder of the Traditionalist Worker Party, an American group that aims to preserve the privileged place of whiteness in Western civilization and fight “anti-Christian degeneracy,” Matthew Heimbachknows whom he envisions as the ideal ruler: the Russian president, Vladimir V. Putin. “Russia is our biggest inspiration,” Mr. Heimbach said. “I see President Putin as the leader of the free world.”

4)

5) 
[WASHINGTON — For years, they have lurked in the web’s dark corners, masking themselves with cartoon images and writing screeds about the demise of white culture under ominous pseudonyms. But on Saturday, in the wake of Donald J. Trump’s surprising election victory, hundreds of his extremist supporters converged on the capital to herald a moment of political ascendance that many had thought to be far away.
In the bowels of the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, three blocks from the White House, members of the so-called alt-right movement gathered for what they had supposed would be an autopsy to plot their grim future under a Clinton administration. Instead, they celebrated the unexpected march of their white nationalist ideas toward the mainstream, portraying Mr. Trump’s win as validation that the tide had turned in their fight to preserve white culture. “It’s been an awakening,” Richard B. Spencer, who is credited with coining the term alt-right, said at the gathering on Saturday. “This is what a successful movement looks like.”

“I never thought we would get to this point, any point close to mainstream acceptance or political influence,” said Matt Forney, 28, of Chicago. “The culture is moving more in my direction.”

Emboldened by Mr. Trump’s takeover of the Republican Party, Mr. Forney said he expected people openly associated with the white nationalist movement to run as candidates in the 2018 midterm elections. The rise of populism and the decline of political correctness, he said, present a rare opportunity.

Robert Taylor, 29, described the conference as a “victory party.” Mr. Taylor was a committed libertarian, he said, working for Ron Paul’s presidential campaigns and even moving to New Hampshire for a project organized by the like-minded. If Hillary Clinton had won the election, he said, he would have advocated secession.

“I thought I had all the right answers and had read all the right books,” he said. “I heard about the alt-right movement, and it just lit a fire in me.”

Mr. Taylor said that with Mr. Trump, “we have breathing room; we have a little time.”

Mr. Trump has shrugged off any suggestions that he has connections to the alt-right. But his hard-line views on immigration and his “America First” foreign policy have captivated members of the movement. His appointment as chief strategist of Stephen K. Bannon, who has called Breitbart News, the website he long ran, a platform for the alt-right, has reinforced the notion that the incoming president is on their side.

The white nationalist embrace of Mr. Trump was on display Saturday at the gathering, which was the annual conference of a group called the National Policy Institute. Guests nibbled on chicken piccata while discussing ways to reorient America’s demographics. Many of the attendees, who were mostly white men, wore red “Make America Great Again” hats. T-shirts emblazoned with Mr. Trump’s face sold quickly. While the enthusiasm inside the conference was evident, the resistance to the alt-right remains powerful. A recent surge in hate crimes and reports of verbal and physical assaults on minorities are putting new pressure on groups that promote racism.

Many sites will not host their events, and some of their members have had their social media accounts suspended in response to vicious trolling of Jewish journalists and critics of Mr. Trump. A large group of protesters marched around the Ronald Reagan Building, which, as a federal property, could not decline to host the conference.

“These people have their right to freedom of speech, but the values they represent don’t represent America,” said Jon Pattee, 48. “I characterize them as the shirt-and-tie arm of the white supremacist-nationalist movement.”... ]