domingo, 21 de junho de 2015

HALLELUJAH

ALELUA - HALLELUJAH - ἀλληλούϊα (Alelouia) 

Aleluia é uma transliteraçãoo do hebraico: הַלְלוּיָהּ (Halləluya ou Halləlûyāh - (Lendo-se da direita para a esquerda, como se faz em hebraico) a primeira parte da palavra Hallelu (הַלְּלוּ) significa "Louvem! Adorem!" ou "Elogio"; a segunda parte da palavra é Yah (Jah) (יָהּ), uma forma abreviada do nome de Deus. Yahou Jah constitui a primeira metade do Tetragrama הוהי, (YHWHIHVHJHVH), o nome do Deus da Bíblia, pronunciado em português como JeováYahweh ou JavéYah escreve-se com as letras yod (י) e he (ה), respectivamente a décima e a quinta letra do alfabeto hebraico. Portanto, a palavra "Aleluia" significa: "Louvem a Jah", ou "Louvai a Jah", ou "Louvado seja Jah", ou "Adorai a Jah", ou "Elogiai a Jah", e assim por diante.

Existe outra teoria que defende que a palavra "Aleluia" não tem nenhum significado especial e que seria a transliteração do ulular como exultação de alegria próprio do povo de Israel. Ainda hoje se pode encontrar entre as tribos semitas e africanas o costume de mostrar alegria através do ulular. Em defesa desta teoria está o facto de o nome de Deus aparecer truncado, o respeito que os hebreus tinham pelo nome sagrado de Deus, nunca lhes permitiria semelhante irreverência.

Esta palavra de elogio ou louvor a Deus é utilizada em cultos e orações pela maioria dos cristãos. A forma latina da palavra Aleluia é usada em muitos idiomas tanto por protestantes como pelos católicos em preferência à forma HalleluJah.

A palavra HalleluJah é usada no Jusaismo como parte das orações de Hallel. A palavra Aleluia aparece 24 vezes no Antigo Testamento da Bíblia cristã, que corresponde grosso modo aos conjuntos de livros Tanach (TorahNeviim e Kethuvim) do Judaísmo. O termo é usado para iniciar e/ou concluir os Salmos (em hebraico תהלים, Tehillim), com exceção do Salmo 135:3. Aleluia aparece junto com a palavra "amém" no Salmo 106:48.

A palavra Aleluia aparece quatro vezes no Novo Testamento, no livro do Apocalipse de João, transliterado em grego como Αλληλούια.



ENGLISH 

Hallelujah ( ) is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְּלוּיָהּ (Modern halleluyaTiberianhalləlûyāh), which is composed of two elements: הַלְּלוּ (second-person imperative masculine plural form of the Hebrew verb hallal: an exhortation to "praise" addressed to several peoples) and יָהּ (YAH).

Most well-known English versions of the Hebrew Bible translate the Hebrew "Hallelujah"  as two Hebrew words, generally rendered as "Praise (ye)" and "the LORD", but the second word is given as "Yah" in the Lexham English BIble and Young's Literal Translation, "Jehovah" in the American standard version, and "Hashem" in the Orthodox Jewish Bible. Instead of a translation, the transliteration "Hallelujah" is used by JPS TanakhInternational Standard VersionDarby TranslationGod's Word TranslationHolman Christian Standard Bible, and The Message, with the spelling "Halleluyah" appearing in the Complet Jewish Bible. The Greek-influenced form "Alleluia" appears in Wycliffe's Bible, the Knox Version and the New Jerusalem Bible.

In the great song of praise to God for his triumph over the Whore of Babylon in chapter 19 of the New Testament Book of Revelation, the Greek word Άλληλούϊα (ἀλληλούϊα) (allēluia), a transliteration of the same Hebrew word, appears four times, as an expression of praise rather than an exhortation to praise. In English translations this is mostly rendered as "Hallelujah", but as "Alleluia" in several translations, while a few have "Praise the Lord", "Praise God", "Praise our God", or "Thanks to our God". 

הַלְּלוּיָהּ is found 24 times in the book of Psalms, and the Greek transliteration ἀλληλούϊα appears in the Septuagint version of these Psalms, in Tobit 13:17 and Maccabee 7:13 and four times in Recelations 19.  The word is used in Judaism as part of the Hallel prayers, and in Christian prayer, where since the earliest times it is used in various ways in liturgies, especially those of the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, both of which use the (latin) form "alleluia".

IN THE BIBLE

The term is used 24 times in the Hebrew Bible (mainly in the book of Paalms, e.g. 111-117 and 145-150 where it starts and concludes a number of Psalms) and four times in Greek transliteration in the Christian Book of Revelation. 

In the Hebrew Bible hallelujah is actually a two-word phrase, not only one word. 

The first part, hallelu, is the second-person imperative masculine plural form of the Hebrew verb hallal. However, "hallelujah" means more than simply "praise Yah", as the word hallel in Hebrew means a joyous praise in song, to boast in God. Hallel could also refer to someone who acts madly or foolishly.

The second part, Yah, is a shortened form of YHWH, the name for the Creator. The name ceased to be pronounced in Second Temple Judaism, by the 3rd century BC due to religious beliefs. The correct pronunciation is not known, however, it is sometimes rendered by Christians as "Yahweh" or "Jehovah". The Septuagint translates Yah as Kyrios (the LORD), because of the Jewish custom of replacing the sacred name with "Adonai", meaning "the Lord".

In the Psalm 150:6 the Hebrew reads kol han'shamah t'hallel yah;] It appears in the Hebrew Bible as הללו-יה and הללו יה. In Psalm 148:1 the Hebrew says "הללו יה hallelu yah". It then says "hallelu eth-YHWH" as if using "yah" and "YHWH" interchangeably. The word "Yah"appears by itself as a divine name in poetry about 49 times in the Hebrew Bible (including hallelu yah), such as in Psalm 68:4-5 "who rides upon the deserts by his name Yah" and Exodus 15:2 "Yah is my strength and song". It also often appears at the end of Israelite theophoric names such as Isaiah "yeshayah(u), Yahweh is salvation" and Jetemiah "yirmeyah(u), Yahweh is exalted".

The word hallelujah occurring in the Psalms is therefore a request for a congregation to join in praise toward God. It can be translated as "Praise Yah" or "Praise Jah, you people". 

The Greek translation, ἀλληλούϊα (allēlouia) appears in Revelation 19:1-6, the great song of praise to God for his triumph over the Whore of Babylon. 


Bibliografia

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