segunda-feira, 17 de novembro de 2014



Πιλός (Έλληνες)
Pileus romano 
Phrygian cap

The pileus is the technical name for the cap, or cap-like part, of a basidiocarp or ascocarp (fungal fruiting body) that supports a spore-bearing surface, the hymenium.[1] The hymenium (hymenophore) may consist of lamellae, tubes, or teeth, on the underside of the pileus. A pileus is characteristic of agarics, boletes, some polypores, tooth fungi,  and some ascomycetes.


The pileus (Greek πῖλος - pilos, also pilleus or pilleum in Latin) was a brimless, felt cap worn in Ancient Greece and surrounding regions, later also introduced in Ancient Rome. The Greek πιλίδιον (pilidion) and Latin pilleolus were smaller versions, similar to a skullcap.
The pileus was especially associated with the manumission of slaves. who wore it upon their liberation. It became emblematic of liberty and freedom from bondage. During the classic revival of the 18th and 19th centuries it was widely confused with the Phrygian capwhich, in turn, appeared frequently on statuary and heraldic devices as a "liberty cap."
The pilos (Greek: πῖλος, felt) was a common conical travelling hat in Ancient Greece. The pilos is the brimless version of the petasos. It could be made of felt or leather. Their pilos cap identifies the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, in sculptures, bas-reliefs and vase-paintings; their caps were already explained in Antiquity as the remnants of the egg from which they hatched. The pilos appears on votive figurines of boys at the sanctuary of the kabeiri at Thebes, the Kabeirion.
In warfare, the pilos type helmet was often worn by the peltast light infantry, in conjunction with the exomis, but it was also worn by the heavy infantry.
The pilos helmet was made of bronze in the same shape as the pilos which was presumably sometimes worn under the helmet for comfort, giving rise to the helmet's conical shape. 
The first widespread adoption of the pilos helmet occurred in Sparta towards the end of the 5th century BC.


In Ancient Rome, a slave was freed in a ceremony in which a praetor touched the slave with a rod called a vindictaand pronounced him to be free. The slave's head was shaved and a pileus was placed upon it. Both the vindictaand the cap were considered symbols of Libertas, the goddess representing liberty.
This was a form of extra-legal manumission (the manumissio minus justa) considered less legally sound than manumission in a court of law.
One 19th century dictionary of classical antiquity states:
Among the Romans the cap of felt was the emblem of liberty. When a slave obtained his freedom he had his head shaved, and wore instead of his hair an undyed pileus (πίλεον λευκόν, Diodorus Siculus Exc. Leg. 22 p. 625, ed. Wess.; Plaut. Amphit. I.1.306; Persius, V.82). Hence the phrase servos ad pileum vocare is a summons to liberty, by which slaves were frequently called upon to take up arms with a promise of liberty (Liv.XXIV.32). The figure of Liberty on some of the coins of Antoninus Pius, struck A.D. 145, holds this cap in the right hand.

πῖλοσwool or hair wrought into felt, used as a lining for helmets, Il.10.265 ; for shoes, Hes.Op.542, cf. Pl.Smp.220bLuc.Rh.Pr.15; but τὴν τῶν οἰκείων πίλων γένεσιν, playfully, of the human hair, Pl.Lg. 942e
  • anything made of felt, esp. close-fitting capHes.Op.546Arist.GA785a27AP6.90 (Phil.), etc.; πίλουσ τιάρασ φορέοντεσwearing turbans for capsHdt.3.12ἀντὶ τῶν π. μιτρηφόροι ἦσαν Id.7.62, cf. 61,92 ; πῖλοι τοῖσ δημοσίοισIG22.1672.70 ; π. λευκόσib.5(1).1390.13 (Andania, i B. C.); of various fashions, π. Ἀρκαδικόσ Polyaen.4.14Λακωνικόσ Poll.1.149 ; Μακεδονικός, = καυσίαId.10.162 ; π. χαλκοῦσ a brazen cap, i. e. helmet, Ar.Lys.562 ; of the apex worn by Roman flaminesD.H.2.64 (pl.). 
    • felt shoeλευκοὺσ ὑπὸ ποσσὶν ἔχων πCratin.100
    • felt cloth, used for carpets, mats, tents, etc., Hdt. 4.23,73,75Hp.Aër.18 (pl.), cf. X.Cyr.5.5.7Aen.Tact.33.3 (pl.), etc.; for horse-cloths, Plu.Art.11
    • felt cuirass, jerkinTh.4.34
  • amadou, Polyporus igniariusThphr.HP3.7.4
    • embryo of Nelumbium, ib.4.8.7
  • ballσφαιρίζουσα πίλῳ Suid.Hist.(FHGiip.464Fr.2

  • = Lat. pilus, as in primus pilusSuid.(Cf. Lat. pilleus.


    The Phrygian cap is a soft conical capwith the top pulled forward, associated in antiquity with the inhabitants of Illyria, a region of the North West Balkan peninsula. In early modern Europe it came to signify freedom and the pursuit of liberty, through a confusion with the pileus, the felt cap of manumitted(emancipated) slaves of ancient Rome. Accordingly, the Phrygian cap is sometimes called a liberty cap; in artistic representations it signifies freedom and the pursuit of liberty.  

    For the ancient Greeks, the Phrygian cap indicates non-Greek "barbarism" (in the classical sense).[1] The Phrygian cap identifies Trojans such as Paris in vase-paintings and sculpture, and it is worn by the syncretic Persian saviour god Mithras and by the Anatolian god Attiswho were later adopted by Romans and Hellenic cultures. The twins Castor and Pollux wear a superficially similar round cap called the pileus.
    The Phrygian cap is sometimes associated with the headdress that was worn by King Midas to hide the donkey ears given to him as a curse by Apollo, although according to Ovid, Midas hid his ears beneath a purple turban. Phrygians, however, were shown wearing the distinctive peaked cap in illustrations on Greek vases, and such images predate the earliest surviving literary sources: a mid-6th-century Laconian cup depicts the capture of Silenus at a fountain house, by armed men in Eastern costume and pointed caps.
    In vase-paintings and other Greek art, the Phrygian cap serves to identify the Trojan hero Paris as non-Greek; Romanpoets habitually use the epithet "Phrygian" to mean Trojan. The Phrygian cap can also be seen on the Trajan's Column carvings, worn by the Dacians, and on the Arch of Septimius Severus worn by the Parthians.
    In the later parts of Roman history, the god Mithras — whose worship was widespread until suppressed by Christianity — was regularly portrayed as wearing a Phrygian cap, fitting with his being perceived as a Persian god who had "come out of the East".
    The MacedonianThracianDacian and 12th-century Norman military helmets had a forward peaked top resembling the Phrygian cap called Phrygian type helmets.
    In late Republican Romepileus, the cap of freedmen served as a symbol of freedom from tyranny. A coin issued by Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger in Asia Minor 44–42 BC, showed one posed between two daggers. During the Roman Empire, the pileus was worn on festive occasions such as the Saturnalia, and by emancipated slaves, whose descendants were consequently considered citizens of the Empire. In early modern Europe, pileus was confused with the Phrygian cap. This is often considered the root of its meaning as a symbol of liberty.

    Verbete Πίλός - Ancient Greek - iOS app. 

    Pileo - Wikipedia 

    Cogumelo é o nome comum dado às frutificações de alguns fungos das divisões Basidiomycota e Ascomycota. A frutificação é a estrutura de reprodução sexuada destes organismos, tendo uma ampla variedade de formas e cores.

    Nenhum comentário: