segunda-feira, 8 de setembro de 2014

Ευφρονίου - EUPHRONIO PINTOR


Euphronios Ευφρονίου (circa 535 - after 470 BC) was an ancient Greek vase painter and potter, active in Athens in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC. 
As part of the so-called "Pioneer Group" (a modern name given to a group of vase painters who were instrumental in effecting the change from Black-figure pottery to Red figure). 

Euphronios was one of the most important artists of the red-figure technique
His works place him at the transition from Late Archaic to Early Classical art.

Around 510 BC, probably seeking new media for his compositions, Euphronios entered the workshop of Euxitheos, a potter who was similarly engaged in experimenting with form and decor in his own work. The stylistic development of Euphronios's work during this period, during which both painter and potter attempted bold and influential experiments, permits a reconstruction of its chronological sequence with some certainty.
A partially preserved chalice krater from this period (Louvre G110) is indicative of the degree to which Euphronios was aware of the influence of his artistic innovations. The front of the chalice shows a classic scene that he had already painted on a bowl around 520 BC : the fight between Heracles and the Nemean Lion. The back, however, depicts a bold and innovative double composition : above, a komos scene, with the participants of the dance drawn in extreme physical postures, and below, a figure viewed from behind, arms leaning backwards. The striking scene has been thought to be the reason that Euphronios signed the work. The signature is unique, as the artist uses the formula: "Euphronios egraphsen tade" - (Ευφρονίου εγρασεν τάδε) - "Euphronios has painted these things". 
The piece is a characteristic example of the Pioneer Group's work and shows how a single vase could make an individual contribution to the development of the form.
This drive for innovation led to a spirit of competition even within individual workshops. On an amphora in Munich, Euthymides, another Pioneer Group Painter, claims that he has painted a picture "as Euphronios never could have done". This phrase implies respect for the colleague's and rival's skill, as well as a contest with him. Similarly, a somewhat younger painter, Smikros, probably a pupil of Euphronios, created some very successful early works that directly plagiarised his master. 
The Getty museun has a signed psykter by Smikros that depicts Euphronios wooing an ephebe named as Leagros. (Λεαγρος καλός) The name Leagros occurs frequently in kalos inscriptions by Euphronios.
THE PIONEER GROUP
The Pioneer Group were a number of red-figure vase painters working in Kerameikos or the potters' quarter of Athens around the beginning of the 5th century BCE. 
Characterized by John Boardman as perhaps "the first conscious art movement in the western tradition", the group comprised the painters: EuphroniosEuthymidesSmikros, Hypsias, the 'Dikaios Painter' and Phintias
We can credit John Beazley with first identifying these artists as a coherent group, though no documentary evidence remains of them; everything we know about them consists of their work itself.
The pioneer group were not innovators of the red-figure technique but rather late adopters of the practice developed by such bilingual painters as Andokides and Psiax. Coming some 10 years after the earliest work in the technique Euphronios's first works are thought to have been produced circa 520 BCE. 
As a group their work makes frequent reference to one another, often in a playful competitive spirit; Euthymides boasts on one of his signed pots "hos oudepote Euphronios" – "as never Euphronios" (Munich 2307). 
Their work is distinctive for its simple rendering of dress, bold handling of anatomy, experimental use of foreshortening and a thematic preference for representations of symposia.
Some works of EUPHRONIOS
This figure probably depicts Euphronios





Greek painting not from Euphronios.

Work depicting warriors by Euphronios. 

Herakles, Antaios and Sarpedon 

two masterpieces


Louvre G 103: Heracles and Antaios on a chalice krater.
A chalice krater with a depiction of Heracles and Antaios in combat is often considered one of Euphronios's masterpieces. The contrast between the barbarian Libyan giant Antaios and the civilised, well-groomed Greek hero is a striking reflection of the developing Greek self-image, and the anatomical precision of the struggling characters' bodies lends grace and power to the piece. The intensity of the work is increased by the presence of two female figures, whose statuesque appearance closes the image. 
During the restoration of the vase, an original outline sketch was found, showing that Euphronios initially had difficulties in depicting the dying giant's outstretched arm, but managed to overcome them while painting the scene.
He then changed the position of the Antaios' hand to another position confering grace and realism to the scene of the death of Lybian giant. 

Front of the Sarpedon krater.
The Sarpedon krater or Euphronios Krater, created around 515 BC, is normally considered to be the apex of Euphronios' work. As on the well-known vase from his early phase, Euphronios set Sarpedon at the centre of the composition. Following an order by Zeus, Thanados and Hypnos carry Sarpedon's dead body from the battlefield. In the centre background is Hermes, here depicted in his role of accompanying the dead on their last voyage. The ensemble is flanked by two Trojan warriors staring straight ahead, apparently oblivious of the action that takes place between them. The figures are not only labelled with their names, but also with explanatory texts. The use of thin slip allowed Euphronios to deliberately use different shades of colour, rendering the scene especially lively. But the krater marks the peak of the artist's abilities not only in pictorial terms; the vase also represents a new achievement in the development of the red-figure style. The shape of the chalice krater had already been developed during the black-figure phase by the potter and painter Exekias, but Euxitheos's vase displays further innovations created specifically for the red-figure technique. By painting the handles, foot and lower body of the vase black, the space available for red-figure depictions is strictly limited. As is usual for Euphronios, the pictorial scene is framed by twisting curlicues. The painting itself is a classic example of the painter's work: strong, dynamic, detailed, anatomically accurate and with a strong hint of pathos. 
Both artists appear to have been aware of the quality of their work, as both painter and potter signed it. The krater is the only work by Euphronios to have survived in its entirety. 
The back of the Sarpedon krater shows a simple arming scene, executed more hastily as the massive krater's clay dried and rendered it less workable. This explicitly contemporary scene, depicting a group of anonymous youths arming themselves for war, is emblematic of the new realism in content as well as form which Euphronios brought to the red-figure technique. These scenes from everyday life, and the artistic conceit of pairing them with a mythological scene on the same piece, distinguish many of the pieces painted by Euphronios and those who followed him.
Fonte: Wikipedia

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