sábado, 2 de agosto de 2014
ARTE - ARS - ΤΕΧΝΗ - (01/VIII/2014)
ARTE - ARS - ΤΕΧΝΗ
τέχν-η, ἡ, (τέκτων) art, skill, cunning of hand, esp. in metalworking, Od.3.433, 6.234, 11.614; also of a shipwright, Il.3.61; of a soothsayer, A.Ag.249 (pl., lyr.), Eu.17, S.OT389, etc.; τέχναι ἑτέρων ἕτεραι Pi.N.1.25; ὤπασε τ. πᾶσαν Id.O.7.50.
craft, cunning, in bad sense, δολίη τ. Od.4.455, Hes.Th.160: pl., arts, wiles, Od.8.327.332, Hes.Th.496,929; δολίαισ τέχναισι χρησάμενοσ Pi.N.4.58; τέχναισ τινόσ by his arts (or simply by his agency), Id.O.9.52, P.3.11; τέχνην κακὴν ἔχει he has a bad trick, Hes.Th.770, cf. Pi.I.4(3).35(53), S Ph.88, etc.
way, manner, or means whereby a thing is gained, without any definite sense of art or craft, μηδεμιῇ τ. in no wise, Hdt.1.112; ἰθέῃ τ. straightway, Id.9.57; πάσῃ τ. by all means, Ar.Nu.1323, Th.65, Ec.366; παντοίᾳ τ. S.Aj.752, etc.; οὐκ ἀποστήσομαι . . οὔτε τ. οὔτε μηχανῇ οὐδεμιᾷ IG12.39.22; πάσῃ τ. καὶ μηχανῇ X.An.4.5.16; μήτε τ. μήτε μηχανῇ μηδεμιᾷ Lys.13.95.
an art, craft, πᾶσαι τέχναι βροτοῖσιν ἐκ Προμηθέωσ A.Pr. 506, cf. IG12.678; τὴν τ. ἐπίστασθαι to know the craft, Hdt.3.130; φλαύρωσ ἔχειν τὴν τ. ibid.; τῆσ τ. ἔμπειροσ Ar.Ra.811; ταύτην τέχνην ἔχει he makes this his trade, Lys.1.16, cf. 6.7; ἐν τῇ τ. εἶναι practise it, S.OT562, Pl.Prt.317c; ἐπὶ τέχνῃ μαθεῖν τι to learn a thing professionally, opp. ἐπὶ παιδείᾳ, ib.312b, cf. 315a; τέχναι καὶ ἐργασίαι X.Mem.3.10.1; τέχνην τὸ πρᾶγμα πεποιημένοι having made a trade of it, D.37.53; τέχνασ ἀσκεῖν, μελετᾶν, ἐργάζεσθαι, to practise them,X. Cyr.1.6.26,41 (Pass.), Oec.4.3; πατρῴαν τέχναν ἐργάζεσθαι ἁλιεύεσθαι Πρακτικὰ Ἀρχ. Ἑτ.1932.52 (Dodona, iv B.C.); ἰατρὸσ τὴν τ. POxy. 40.5 (ii A.D.); τεθεραπευκὼσ ἀνεγκλήτωσ τῇ τ., of a barber, PEnteux. 47.3 (iii B.C.); παραμενῶ πρὸσ ὑπηρεσίαν τῆσ τ. (viz. weaving) Sammelb. 7358.20 (iii A.D.); ἀπὸ τεχνῶν τρέφεσθαι live by them, X.Lac. 7.1.
an art or craft, i.e. a set of rules, system or method of making or doing, whether of the useful arts, or of the fine arts, Epich.171.11, Pl.Phdr.245a, Arist.Rh.1354a11, EN1140a8; ἡ ἐμπειρία τέχνην ἐποίησεν, ἡ δ' ἀπειρία τύχην Polus ap. eund.Metaph. 981a4; ἡ περὶ τοὺσ λόγουσ τ. the Art of Rhetoric, Pl.Phd.90b; οἱ τὰσ τ. τῶν λόγων συντιθέντεσ systems of rhetoric, Arist.Rh.1354a12, cf. Isoc.13.19, Pl.Phdr.271c, Phld.Rh.2.50 S., al.; hence title of various treatises on Rhetoric (v. VI; but rather tricks of Rhetoric, in Aeschin. 1.117); τέχνῃ by rules of art, Pl.Euthd.282d; ἢ φύσει ἢ τέχνῃ Id.R. 381b; τέχνῃ καὶ ἐπιστήμῃ Id.Ion532c; ἄνευ τέχνης, μετὰ τέχνησ, Id.Phd.89e: τ. defined as ἕξισ ὁδοποιητική, Zeno Stoic.1.20, cf. Cleanth. ib.1.110.
= τέχνημα, work of art, handiwork, κρατῆρεσ . . , ἀνδρὸσ εὔχειροσ τέχνη S.OC472; ὅπλοισ . . , Ἡφαίστου τέχνῃ Id.Fr. 156, cf. Str.14.1.14, PLond.3.854.4 (ii A.D.), Paus.6.25.1, al.
= συντεχνία, ἡ τ. τῶν λιθουργῶν, τῶν σακκοφόρων, Dumont-Homolle Mélanges d' archéol. et d' épigr.p.378 No.65,66 (Perinthus); τ. βυρσέων, συροποιῶν, IGRom.1.717,1482 (both Philippopolis); τοὺσ καταλειπομένουσ ἀπὸ τῇσ τ. BGU1572.12 (ii A.D.); ὁ χαλκεὺσ ἀπὸ τῆσ τ. SIG 1140 (Amphipolis).
treatise on Grammar, D.T. tit., or on Rhetoric, Anaximenes Lampsacenus tit.
τέχν-ασμα, ατοσ, τό, anything made or done by art, handiwork, κέδρου τεχνάσματα, of a cedar coffin, E.Or.1053; τ. σιδήρου implement of iron.
Techne" is a term, etymologically derived from the Greek word τέχνη (Ancient Greek: [tékʰnɛː], Modern Greek: [ˈtexni], that is often translated as "craftsmanship", "craft", or "art".
Techne is a term in philosophy which resembles epistēmē in the implication of knowledge of principles, although techne differs in that its intent is making or doing as opposed to disinterested understanding.
As an activity, techne is concrete, variable, and context-dependent. As one observer has argued, techne "was not concerned with the necessity and eternal a priori truths of the cosmos, nor with the a posteriori contingencies and exigencies of ethics and politics. [...] Moreover, this was a kind of knowledge associated with people who were bound to necessity. That is, techne was chiefly operative in the domestic sphere, in farming and slavery, and not in the free realm of the Greek polis
Aristotle saw it as representative of the imperfection of human imitation of nature. For the ancient Greeks, it signified all the mechanic arts, including medicine and music. The English aphorism, "gentlemen don’t work with their hands", is said to have originated in ancient Greece in relation to their cynical view on the arts. Due to this view, it was only fitted for the lower class while the upper class practiced the liberal arts of 'free' men (Dorter 1973).
Socrates also compliments techne only when it was used in the context of epistēmē. Epistēmē sometimes means knowing how to do something in a craft-like way. The craft-like knowledge is called a technê. It is most useful when the knowledge is practically applied, rather than theoretically or aesthetically applied. For the ancient Greeks, when techne appears as art, it is most often viewed negatively, whereas when used as a craft it is viewed positively because a craft is the practical application of an art, rather than art as an end in itself. In The Republic, written by Plato, the knowledge of forms "is the indispensable basis for the philosophers' craft of ruling in the city" (Stanford 2003).
Techne is often used in philosophical discourse to distinguish from art (or poiesis). This use of the word also occurs in the digital humanities to differentiate between linear narrative presentation of knowledge and dynamic presentation of knowledge, wherein techne represents the former and poiesis represents the latter.
Usage in art history
“In fact, techne and ars [sic] referred less to a class of objects than to the human ability to make and perform…. the issue is not about the presence or absence of a word but about the interpretation of a body of evidence, and I believe there is massive evidence that the ancient Greeks and Romans had no category of fine art.” (Shiner 2001 p. 19-20)
Na Antiguidade Clássica não se vislumbrava qualquer diferenciação entre arte e técnica.
A teknê grega, bem como a ars latina referiam-se não só a uma habilidade, é um saber fazer, a uma espécie de conhecimento técnico, mas também ao trabalho, à profissão, ao desempenho de uma tarefa. O técnico era aquele que executava um trabalho, fazendo-o com uma espécie de perfeição ou estilo, em virtude de possuir o conhecimento e a compreensão dos princípios envolvidos no desempenho.
Sempre associada ao trabalho dos artesãos, a arte era susceptível de ser aprendida e aperfeiçoada, até se tornar uma competência especial na produção de um objeto.
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